Goal Setting is one of the best known of all mental skills – but we have come a very long way since the good old days of S.M.A.R.T. goals.
There are just over 5000 separate searches for the term ‘goal setting’ every 24 hours around the world. This is almost exactly the same number of searches for the term ‘sport psychology’ which suggests that athletes, coaches, students, bored teenagers and performers are just as interested in mental skills as they are in the field in which they belong.
One important starting point before getting into specific mental skills is to understand the difference between the processes (methods) and their intended outcomes. In other areas of sports science, these are much easier to separate. For example, skipping using a skipping rope is the process (method) with one of the intended outcomes being to improve cardio fitness (and one’s skipping ability, of course).
The same framework can and should be applied to mental training but rarely is. Goal setting is the method, the process but what are the intended areas we’re trying to influence when we do some goal setting?
Most sports psychologists will tell you that goal setting is all about improving motivation but I would argue that it’s much broader than that. In fact, if done properly, goal setting can become the entire foundation of your personal and sporting/performance endeavours.
At the very heart of the way we – at Condor Performance – do goal setting is helping our clients to have a better understanding of the amount of influence, they have on what they’re setting and doing. This is turn helps to inform their values. What is really important versus what is only partially valuable.
Although we don’t actually label it as ‘goal setting’ as such our ‘let’s do this’ procedures revolve around long terms outcome goals that we have the least amount of influence on due to them being future-based and results-based. This is not to say they we have only a little influence over these – rather we have the least amount of influence over them compared with the other elements of our goal setting. Some clients choose only sporting goals (“to win one professional golf tournament”) whilst others pick less sporting life aims (“to be happily retired by 2025”). On some occasions, the two get combined (“to be happily retired by 2025 having won one professional golf tournament”).
The scientific data suggests that for most people this forecasting is a useful process and I often use the analogy of planning a trip to explain why this is an important step. When planning a trip we typically start with the destination and then work out how we’re going to get there.
Your long term outcome goals are your intended destination – there is no guarantee you’ll get there but they can act as a very useful guiding light along the way.
The best way to have a ‘red hot go’ is through the combination of monthly checks and weekly effort that have been described in varying degrees in many of the editions of the Mental Toughness Digest (use the search bar at the bottom of this page to read more about these by pasting in ‘monthly checks’ and ‘weekly effort’.
But in short they work like this. Monthly Checks are typically performance aims and indicators that we have more influence on compared with our long terms outcome goals. And although we have zero influence on the month that has just ended we have a fair bit on the month that is about to start. How well we influence this upcoming month is, in part, down to how effectively we can measure a number of KPIs and use the numbers to improve our intentions moving forward.
For example, maybe you have decided to measure the amount of sleep you get before training and correlate this with the quality of your training. A high correlation between these might see you prioritise your sleep as a non-negotiable.
This leaves us finally with the piece of the goal setting puzzle that we have by far the most amount of influence on – how we decide to spend our time (the part where we get to decide) this week (not quite the present moment but close enough).
Remember you and those you’ll need to beat in order to achieve your long term sporting goals start every single week with 168 hours available. Who is going to make the most of them, you or them?
Some Free Sports Psychology Tips to help you perform better by leading performance psychologist David Barracosa of Condor Performance
An A to Z Guide To Sports Psychology
I have added N to Z below the A to M section so if you’ve already read A to Z then just scroll down. If you don’t already get email notifications from us and would like to please subscribe by completing the form here.Enjoy and forward.
A is for Attitude
It may be surprising but in our work, as sport and performance psychologists we actually don’t refer to attitude much. Attitude is actually just one of the many types of human cognition of which thoughts, beliefs and values are the most common. When a coach refers to an athlete as having a ‘good attitude’ or ‘the right attitude’ he or she is probably suggesting that this athlete’s values and beliefs are roughly in line with their own.
For example, both might regard sporting results as important but not as important as hard work and effort. The most interesting aspect of attitude is it is often assessed via observations (a coach watching an athlete in training) and therefore it is probably body language that is actually being appraised. Attitude, if we take the term literally, is not directly observable as it’s occurring inside the mind.
B is for Body Language
Body language is a fascinating area of performance psychology. Research suggests that it dominates how we communicate compared with the actual words we use. In sporting contexts, this makes even more sense as it is quite normal for their to be little or no verbal communication. With maybe the exception of the captains or leaders of sporting teams, most athletes of most sports don’t say very much during both training and whilst competing.
For this majority, communicating with either teammates or opponents is taking place via the body. By the body, we mean entire body from facial expressions to posture to hand gestures and everything in between. How do you improve body language? I would suggest starting out by filming yourself in a variety of situations and then watch it back with the sound off.
If you’d like some help learning from what you watch then shoot us an email to email@example.com asking about our 1-on-1 sport and performance psychology services via Skype or FaceTime video.
C is for Consistency
Sometimes we refer to consistency as ‘the holy grail’ of competitive sport. As can be read in this extensive blog by my colleague Chris Pomfret improved consistency is really just the consequence of taking the mental side of your sport (or performance area) seriously.
D is for Determination
Determination is very similar to the mental concept as motivation without being a synonym. Motivation, at least as defined by our coaching philosophy Metuf, is more about enthusiasm, enjoyment, desire and dreams. Determination might be a good word to refer to the actions we continue with during times in which the natural love and enthusiasm for our sport is not there. One of the most common examples of this is when the scoreboard is not in your favour (no way to win with time remaining) and yet you decide to preservative anyway. This is a great example of sporting determination.
E is for Enjoyment
The enjoyment we’re referring to in this instance is the kind that most kids tend to have towards their sport before it becomes ‘serious’. The fun of chasing the ball more than getting to it first. At the time of writing, my children are six and four years of age and are taking part in a variety of sports programs. One of them is Little Kickers, a football/soccer program whereby the fun factor is central to everything they do. The issue is, this enjoyment tends to dissipate once the stakes increase as far too many sporting coaches become far too intense during competitions due to a lack of sports psychology training during their accreditation.
F is for Focus
Learning to improve focus is actually one of the easier mental skills as it really boils down to knowing when and how to switch on – and then practising this like any other skill. There are many great examples of how to do this but amongst the most effective are the short performance routines that I wrote about in our last blog article. I say easier in comparison to various other mental skills which although very effective can be somewhat critic in nature.
There is no getting away from the fact that training the mind is always going to be a trickier mountain to climb due to the investable nature of what we’re targeting for improvement. For example, areas such as focus.
G is for Grit
Grit is a term which has gained a lot of momentum recently due mainly to the works of Angela Duckworth (see YouTube video below). Grit is defined via it’s Wikipedia page as a “…non-cognitive trait based on an individual’s perseverance of effort combined with the passion for a particular long-term goal or end state (a powerful motivation to achieve an objective). This perseverance of effort promotes the overcoming of obstacles or challenges that lie on the path to accomplishment and serves as a driving force in achievement realisation. Distinct but commonly associated concepts within the field of psychology include “perseverance”, “hardiness“, “resilience“, “ambition”, “need for achievement” and “conscientiousness“.
Our monthly clients, as well as long-time readers of the Mental Toughness Digest, will rightly feel that many of these words – perseverance, effort, ambition are very familiar to them as they are cornerstone concepts of Metuf.
H is for Hard Work
There is simply no substitute for hard work.
I is for Influence
Knowing the amount of influence you have on some of the more common aspects of your sport (or performance areas) is mighty useful. A great little exercise you can do is to start a simple three-column table. The heading of the first column is ‘Lots of Influence’, for the second write “Some Influence” and for the final one label it “Little Influence”.
Now start to fill in the table with whatever comes to mind. For example, you might be spending a lot of time thinking about an upcoming competition combined with memories of how you did at the same venue last year. So you might decide to put the Future in the middle column and the Past in the right-hand column – for instance.
J is for Junior Sport
If I were in charge of sport in a particular state or country I would flip funding so that the vast majority of recourses went into the junior or developmental side of sports. In other words, the best coaches, equipment and facilities normally only accessible to the top 0.1% of athletes would be diverted to athletes under the age of 16.
For example, those regarded as the very best coaches – like Wayne Bennettin rugby league – would be invited to coach junior rugby league players instead. I would make sure that whatever position was created for this had the same or greater salary as top-flight professional coaches.
11 K is for Keeping Going
Maybe the most powerful cue words in sport. Your mind will virtually always quit on you before your body does. Tell it to Keep Going and see what happens.
12 L is for Learning
There is a reason why some of the very best sporting coaches of all time – for example, Jake White – are formers teachers. They treat the process of performance enhancement as one long learning experience for both themselves and their players. The most appealing aspect of this angle is that poor performances are used as learning opportunities. Errors, for example, are considered as invaluable elements of feedback – data that can be used to inform better choices moving forward.
13 M is for Monitoring
If you are not monitoring at least one aspect of your endeavours you’re missing out. At Condor Performance we encourage our sporting and non-sporting clients to record one or more “monthly checks”. As can be read in detail from this recent blog post these monthly checks are like our key performance indicators. As long as you know the right number of monthly checks to monitor (not too many) and the amount of influence you have on each of these results (not as much as you think) there is zero downsides to this kind of self-monitoring and plenty of upsides.
N is for Numbers
Whether you like it or not competitive sport – especially at the elite level – is full of numbers. In fact certain sports, like cricket and baseball are so mathematical in nature that the coaches of these sports would be forgiven for thinking of themselves more like statisticians from time to time. This is one of the reasons why we encourage our monthly clients to monitor their own progress – to allow them to function, even thrive in a results-oriented world. The other reasons have already been mentioned above in the M for monitoring.
O is for Objectivity
Both the M and the N above help with objectively but alone might not be enough. Objectively is roughly the opposite of subjectively with the latter being heavy on opinions with the former much more based on facts. For example, it’s quite normal for athletes and coaches to assess past performances based mostly (or only) on memory or even worse, based on the final result. This is highly subjective and a bit like any human pursuit we’d want to be careful about how much of our analysis is subjective. Objective analysis – for example, the number of missed tackles – will be more valuable as the numbers don’t lie.
Actually, this is not true – numbers can lie but are less likely to do so than opinions.
P is for Pressure
‘Pressure’ is one of the most fascinating aspects of sports psychology. For a start, it’s 100% internal – it’s a feeling with very real physiological sensations – a little bit like hunger. Because it’s going on inside it’s less tangible and therefore harder to manage. To start with, it’s really important not to consider pressure as being good or bad. Let me use hunger to explain. Hunger, for most of us, is simply a signal for us to go an eat something. Once we do, the hunger goes away. The food that alleviates the hunger that is pressure is practice. That’s right, high-quality practice is like a pile of organic veggies.
Of course, there is also a benefit to learning to deal with hunger/pressure in case there is no food/practice available. By far the best way to do this – in my opinion – is to work with a qualified sport/performance psychologist like one of the members of our team.
Q is for Quantity and Quality
This is how we break down practice or effort. Quantity is ‘how much’ and wants to be in the right amount. Quality is how good and wants to be as high as possible. We often find it useful to multiply these together. For example, if the highest score for each is 10 then combined the highest score is 100.
There are still a huge number of people out there whose beliefs about what sports psychologists or performance psychologists do get in the way of us being able to help them. The stigma comes from the word ‘psychologist’ which too many people still associate with having some kind of mental problem. The general premise of working with a psychologist being a sign of weakness needs to be broken. A band-aid solution to this is to refer to ourselves as a coach or performance coaches or mental skills trainers instead. The issue with this is it doesn’t help to remove the stigma. Also, it seems a pity not to be able to use the title psychologist that took us seven or so years to earn.
T is for Time Management
Being able to manage your own time, your needs and your wants is one of the most underrated of all mental skills. I work with a LOT of young elite athletes (teenagers on track to be the world’s best in their chosen sport) and on the whole, they come to me with either poor or non-existent time management skills. Sometimes, a simple suggestion like buying a $5 diary to start recording upcoming commitments can do wonders in terms of accountability, planning, knowing when to say ‘no’ or ‘yes’ to invitations and moving their mindset more towards effort and further from results.
Our values and beliefs guide our thoughts so if you’d like to update your daily thought processes then it can be a good idea to think about your values. By values, we really mean what you consider to be valuable or important. A nice little exercise to get the ball rolling is to simply list everything you consider to be important in your life and why. For example, you might write ‘8 hours of sleep a night’ and follow that with ‘because it helps me get the most of various training sessions the following day’. The ‘why’ part is very important as this links our endeavours to our internal motivation.
X is for eXcellence
Are you striving for excellence? Do you want to become excellent at what you do? How would you define and measure excellence? Is your training excellence? Do you know how to increase your chances of becoming the best possible athlete or coach you can be? If not get in touch and we’ll lend you a hand.
Y is for Yourself
One of the best ways of helping others is to look after yourself first.
Z is for Zest
Zest is one of the traits that we look for when we are interviewing psychologists looking to join our team of sport and performance psychologists. Do they have a passion for sports and helping athletes and coaches become better versions of themselves? If not, getting up at 5 am to deliver a Skype session to a monthly client from another country might just prove to be too hard.
What Is Mental Toughness is one of the questions that international sports psychologist Gareth J. Mole addresses in his new book – due out in Oct 2019.
I am sure almost everyone thinks about writing a book at one stage in their lives. I have felt like I have a couple of book in me for many years but for reasons beyond my control I have not ‘stepped up’ … until now. Since the start of 2019, I have been tapping away behind the scenes and am delighted to confirm that we’ll be seeking interest from publishers around Sept / Oct of this year. I am yet to pick a title for the book – which will be aimed at serious athletes and sporting coaches – but a large chunk of it is about mental toughness.
What is mental toughness, what is it not and how to improve it permanently are amongst the main topics that I explore in what I am calling a ‘guidebook’?
Partly due to the fact that my kids are currently on school holidays (which halves the amount of time I get to work) and partly to ‘test the water’ of my penmanship for this latest Mental Toughness Digest blog I have decided to paste an expert from the book – which is about two thirds finished. Enjoy, forward and constructive feedback via the comments sections below might just get you a free copy of the hardback in the post after we go to print.
Mental Toughness Targeted By Mental Preparation
Before going through the subcomponents of Mental Toughness I need to address what I assume will be the main point of controversy about this book – separating the mental side of performance from general wellbeing.
Or using terms you’re more likely to come across – considering both mental health and mental toughness as important but different.
For some of you, the aeroplane analogy will automatically do the explaining for me. Although the aircraft can be thought of as a single vessel in the same way that a person can be thought of as one being the fact is that each of these is made up of different interconnecting ‘bits’.
In the event that the aeroplane analogy doesn’t quite get the job done let me justify this approach future using some of the other engines as examples.
Most human beings do not require super fitness, amazing physical strength nor excellent flexiblity in order to function, thrive and be good at what they do. In fact, only relatively small amounts of physical activity may be needed in order for most people to experience the day to day benefits of exercise on their wellbeing.
But if this person happens to be an athlete – and in particular an athlete of a physically demanding sport – such as biathlon or triathlon – then these small amounts of psychical activity will not be sufficient if they want to go as far in their chose sport as possible.
Just Like An Aeroplane
If the purpose of the aircraft is simply to go for short 20 minute flights as part of a hobby group for amateur fliers then it still needs to function but the efficiency of the engines is less critical compared with an aeroplane that wants to fly as far as possible (safely).
So Mental Toughness joins the previously covered Physical Capabilities, Technical Consistency and Tactical Wisdom to make up the fourth and final engine – the four groups of ‘extras’ needed to go much further than might otherwise be possible.
With this in mind, I will be guiding you through a number of different ideas that most people really never need to consider adding to their weekly routine. But the mental requirements of becoming the best possible athlete or sporting coach you can be are far from the mental requirements of basic functioning and wellbeing.
So what is Mental Toughness then? What are the subcomponents of this engine, what areas can we target for improvement in our quest to become mentally tougher?
After 15 years of helping mostly athletes with mostly their performance mental toughness, I believe that it is best broken down into these five key psychological subcomponents:
In other words the best possible answer I can give at this stage to the question ‘what is mental toughness’ is something along these lines:
Mental Toughness is an umbrella term that refers to varying levels and combinations of motivation towards training and competing, the ability to manage the full spectrum of emotions and thoughts, knowing when and how to switch on or off as well as team related factors such learning to respect your teammates.
Most of the other labels that you’d expect to be here are either synonyms of one of these words or a type of one of the subcomponents or a combination of the both of these. For example, the words concentration and attention are both synonyms of focus. Confidence, pressure. fear and feeling relaxed are all types of emotions. Flow, one of the most common words in modern-day sport psychology, is really just a blend of high focus and relaxation.
In fact, I’m happy to invite any fan of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi’s theory to compare what you currently do to get into a state of flow with my suggestions below and let me know which is more effective.
If you can wait until the book gets published to find out what the ‘below’ means then get in touch via our Contact Us form and ask for some information about our 1-on-1 mental toughness training options. We typically reply in less than 24 hours.