No Agreement At This Time
It is important to state from the very beginning that there is currently very little agreement within the sport psychology community about what is really meant by mental toughness. In fact many researchers and psychologists working in sport and performance don’t even like the term mental toughness. Some don’t like the actual label whilst others don’t believe it should be a seperate concept to mental health. With this in mind the below assertions are just my professional opinions. Not surprisingly they are shared by my colleagues at Condor Performance.
Defining Sporting Mental Toughness
What is mental toughness? What is it not? Is there a best practice way to improve it permanently? These are amongst the main topics that I will address below. Please use the comments sections at the bottom to let me know if you agree or disagree and why. And don’t forgot the why.
Mental Toughness Is Not The Same As Mental Preparation
Is the pursuit of more clarify we need to clear up the most common furphy first. Mental Toughness is the target, the outcome, the ‘thing(s)’ we’re trying to improve. Mental Toughness is not a process. Mental Toughness is the cake. It’s not the beating of the eggs.
A more accurate but less appealing label for mental toughness is actually ‘the mental aspects specific to performance’. But in the same way that you’d sell less Advil if you called it only by it’s scientific name (ibuprofen) mental toughness is both punchier and more appealing to the consumer. If you want to see the importance of getting the label right have a look at this.
Furthermore, mental toughness is the umbrella terms for ‘the mental aspects specific to performance’. What this means is that is refers to a complex interplay between a number of very different mental aspects. It works the same way as intelligence. Intelligence is now known to be made up of different types. So saying some is intelligent or not is less than usual. First up, it’s too black and white – where is the cut off? But more importantly it ignores the fact that someone can be high in visual-spatial intelligence and low in verbal-linguistic for example.
So a much more relevant question is what are the subcomponents of mental toughness? What are the common psychological outcomes we’re looking to improve as psychologists working in sport? After we have agreed on that, we can focus on the best methods, processes for improving them.
The Aeroplane Analogy
At Condor Performance we an use an analogy that the competitive athlete is like a four engined plane. This is best explained via this 15 minute video below.
Most human beings do not require super fitness, amazing physical strength nor excellent flexibility in order to function, thrive and be good at what they do. In fact, only relatively small amounts of physical activity may be needed in order for most people to experience the day-to-day benefits of exercise on their wellbeing.
But if this person happens to be an athlete – and in particular an athlete of a physically demanding sport then these small amounts of psychical activity will not be sufficient. Especially if they want to go as far in their chosen sport as possible.
If the purpose of the aircraft is simply to go for short 20 minute flights as part of a hobby group for amateur fliers then it still needs to function but the efficiency of the engines is less critical compared with an aeroplane that wants to fly as far as possible (safely).
After 15 years of helping mostly athletes with mostly their performance mental toughness, I believe that it is best broken down into these five key psychological subcomponents:
- Motivation (towards training and competing)
- Emotional Agility (before / during training and competitions
- Thought Shaping through values
- Unity (Team cohesion)
- Focus on demand
Be Careful Of Synonyms!
Most of the other labels that you’d expect to be here are either synonyms of one of these words or a type of one of the subcomponents or a combination of the both of these. For example, the words concentration and attention are both synonyms of focus. I know from some of my academic contact that some don’t agree with this. In other others focus and attention are not actually the same. To them I say this. They are close enough, let’s not overcomplicate things just for the same of it.
Confidence, pressure. fear and feeling relaxed are all types of emotions. Flow, one of the most common words in modern-day sport psychology, is really just a blend of high focus whilst executing tasks that are not too easy nor too hard.
How Do We Improve Mental Toughness
As mentioned before trying to improve mental toughness as a whole thing is a waste of time. Much in the same way that trying to improve intelligence is. Once you start asking yourself the question how do I improve motivation or emotional agility then the magic start to happen. First, common sense and/or experience will produce a few ideas.
Try this experiment with kids. As them to brainstorm way to improve mental toughness. See what happens. Now repeat and ask them to come up with was to improve group unity. Bam!
If you type the word ‘motivation’ into Google Scholar you get 4,270,000 results. We know a lot about motivation and how to improve it. If you type ‘mental toughness’ in you get a mere 18,400 results. That’s more than 200 times the amount of knowledge on motivation compared with mental toughness.
If you are not happy with common sense alone then turn your attention to the research. Or better still start working with someone who has gone through all the research on your behalf. At Condor Performance I am blessed to have an amazing team of psychologists who do almost of the consulting. This allows me the time to get my geek on and consume performance psychology like a bear coming out of hibernation.
If you’d like to find our more about how to work with one of our team on your mental toughness then get in touch now.
2 thoughts on “What Is Mental Toughness?”
I have been an avid reader of your newsletter since working with Chris Pomfret in 2016.
I think you have some invaluable content.
One thing that hampers your message – for me at least – is a blend of grammatical errors and ambiguous sentences. Your structure could also be altered to improve clarity.
I’d like to paste some excerpts to explain what I mean but your page seems to forbid copying.
The last sentence before your excerpt begins is one example of a poorly-constructed sentence.
I enjoy editing academic and non-fiction texts and have been doing so for the last 6 years. This is particularly enjoyable if I enjoy the subject matter. I am sure I’d enjoy helping with your book!
If you’d like to discuss how I could improve the readability, clarity and precision of your prose, please just drop me an email. Better writing = bigger impact!!
Hi Josh, sorry about the delay in replying. The inferior use of the English language in my (not our) blog posts in a direct consequence of something called the Speed Accuracy trade-off. In the Speed Accuracy trade-off, there is a direct inverse relationship between speed and accuracy in that the accuracy is improved by taking one’s time.
For example, a rugby union goal kicker will be more accurate if he / she takes his / her time before each attempt.
Due to the fast-growing nature of Condor Performance I, as the CEO, have to pick and choose what aspects of my role to take my time with. For example, the supervision that I provide to Chris and the others is one of the most important aspects of what I do so I never rush this. The writing and publishing of the one blog article each week is more like an item on a ‘to-do list’ but it can’t get the same amount of my time as many other more important tasks. So what you read each week is the product of a psychologist (me) belting out 1000 words in 90 minutes with only a quick proofread. I am confident this is adequate by the fact that none of the other 10,000 subscribers has every pointed out the ‘blend of grammatical errors and ambiguous sentences’. Cheers, Gareth
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